The pottery is still buff coloured, but more refined. Production techniques changed. The pottery was subject to two firings, the first to render the thinner vessels hard enough to decorate and a final firing after the application of glaze.
In the mid 16th Century potters began to use a tougher type of clay. This together with improved firing techniques meant quartz in the form of sand didn't need to be added as a tempering agent to the clay mixture to add strength. Hence you can tell if you have the later shards by their smoothness and absence of 'black bits', as below
|Mudlarking Finds: Possibly porringers and a Chafing Dish|
|Porringer 1550-1700 (Museum of London)|
|Chafing Dish 1550-1700 (Museum of London)|
|Border Ware Strainer 1601-33 (Museum of London)|
|16th Century Border Ware Chicken Feeder (V&A)|
Germany was Europe's ceramic leader and at least one German potter settled in the Surrey Borders. This influence perhaps led Surrey borders to produce masses of tripod pipkins, a form popular in Germany. The characteristic small hollow handles are a reasonably common find along the Thames. A stick could be inserted into the handle to make it longer and of course less hot. Pipkins were placed on the coals at the edge of a fire and some recipes specified using an earthenware rather than a metal pipkin.
|Mudlarking Finds: Pipkin Handles 16th - 17th C|
|Tripod Pipkin 1636-1700 (Museum of London)|
The Accomplisht Cook by Robert May 1678Chop ellicksanders and oatmeal together,
being picked and washed, then set on
a pipkin with fair water, and when it
boils, put in your herbs, oatmeal, and
salt, boil it on a soft fire, and make it
not too thick, being almost boil’d put
in some butter.
When you scoop up one of these finds along the foreshore, it may well have come from a London which looked like this,
Wyngaerde - Central London 1550